In 1948, the Fire and Disaster Agency's National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster began the inspection of fire equipment in Japan. However, along with the development of industrialization and the concentration of population in urban areas, and in spite of the steadily rising annual number of cases of fire, the Research Institute of Fire and Disaster was unable to prevent the continued use of poor quality equipment because inspections were voluntary. Consequently, there arose a strong desire for a stronger fire prevention inspection system.

In response to this need, the Japan Fire Equipment Inspection Institute was established in October 1963 as a public organization for conducting inspections. In the following year, the inspection of fire equipment and systems was changed from voluntary to compulsory.

Currently, JFEII carries out a variety of activities to guarantee that the fire prevention equipment needed to safeguard lives and assets functions properly. These activities, carried out under the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications include testing, consultation, commissioned testing and research, and the provision of technical information through activities such as training seminars, as well as participation in international efforts such as the ISO.